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太空垃圾如何清理?卫星测试用鱼叉击中太空垃圾碎片

????图示:项目卫星以每小时70公里的速度发射“鱼叉”击中太空垃圾碎片这个类似于鱼叉的设备从冰箱大小的卫星上以每小时44英里的速度射出,其拖着一根绳子猛烈刺穿了铝质面板。“到目前为止,我们真的很高兴,”英国萨里太空中心主任、这项耗资1500万美元项目的首席研究员古格列尔莫·阿格列蒂(Guglielmo Aglietti)如是指出。“目标物是用和卫星一样的材料制成的,所以能代表整个系统的工作原理。”在清理太空垃圾的实际任务中,卫星会使用一个大得多的太空鱼叉捕获碎片,然后将其拖到大气层中燃烧掉。阿格利蒂把这次演习比作敢死队任务。据统计,太空中散布着从废弃的火箭部件、报废卫星,再到散落的螺母和螺栓等各种太空垃圾。美国国防部现在对地球轨道上堆积的50多万件人造碎片进行跟踪。所有这些太空垃圾对经过的航天器,比如说国际空间站以及耗资数十亿美元的卫星构成了日益严重的碰撞威胁。“从统计角度讲,每五到九年就会有一次灾难性的碰撞,一颗仍完好无损的大型太空垃圾往往会被撞击成数以千计的碎片,” 德国航空航天中心专门处理太空垃圾的专家曼努埃尔`梅茨(Manuel Metz)表示,“这些新的碎片本身可能会产生新的碰撞,因此会产生层叠效应。”而这种现象正是2013年电影《地心引力》所描述的潜在灾难性现象。阿格利蒂认为,首先集中精力清除最大的太空碎片是有道理的,因为它们往往威胁更大。整个项目的想法是发射一系列的垃圾清理卫星,让它们每年捕获并清除一些碎片。如果正在进行的清除太空垃圾测试任务圆满结束,阿格利蒂希望航空航天公司愿意为清理太空垃圾的任务提供资金。“这是概念的证明,”他说。“如果成功了,我们希望我们的工业合作伙伴将其推进到商业领域。”此次演示是RemoveDebris卫星对太空碎片收集设备进行一系列测试中的第二次。RemoveDebris卫星由大学和航空航天公司组成的一个财团建造,主要由欧盟提供资金。去年9月,这颗卫星成功地用一个装有弹簧的网捕获了一块模拟碎片。今年3月,这颗卫星将在一块太空碎片上安装一个可充气的“拖曳帆”。科学家们预计,“拖曳帆”将与卫星所在高度的少数空气分子相互作用,从而减慢碎片的飞行速度,使其坠入大气层并燃烧。此外,人们还提出了各种潜在装置来捕获和消除空间碎片,包括自推进系绳和机械臂。阿格利蒂说,之所以选择鱼叉、渔网和拖曳帆来清除太空垃圾碎片,是因为它们更为经济。德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校(University of Texas at Austin)太空科学家、太空碎片研究专家莫里巴·贾(Moriba Jah)说,最好有不止一种方法来清除所有堆积的垃圾。“主动清除太空碎片需要许多不同的方法和技术,”他在周二的一封电子邮件中说。“我认为,我们需要一套所谓的‘工具包’,能够根据实际情况应用各种方法。”

tu shi: xiang mu wei xing yi mei xiao shi 70 gong li de su du fa she" yu cha" ji zhong tai kong la ji sui pian zhe ge lei si yu yu cha de she bei cong bing xiang da xiao de wei xing shang yi mei xiao shi 44 ying li de su du she chu, qi tuo zhe yi gen sheng zi meng lie ci chuan le lv zhi mian ban." dao mu qian wei zhi, wo men zhen de hen gao xing," ying guo sa li tai kong zhong xin zhu ren zhe xiang hao zi 1500 wan mei yuan xiang mu di shou xi yan jiu yuan gu ge lie er mo a ge lie di Guglielmo Aglietti ru shi zhi chu." mu biao wu shi yong he wei xing yi yang de cai liao zhi cheng de, suo yi neng dai biao zheng ge xi tong de gong zuo yuan li." zai qing li tai kong la ji de shi ji ren wu zhong, wei xing hui shi yong yi ge da de duo de tai kong yu cha bu huo sui pian, ran hou jiang qi tuo dao da qi ceng zhong ran shao diao. a ge li di ba zhe ci yan xi bi zuo gan si dui ren wu. ju tong ji, tai kong zhong san bu zhe cong fei qi de huo jian bu jian bao fei wei xing, zai dao san luo de luo mu he luo shuan deng ge zhong tai kong la ji. mei guo guo fang bu xian zai dui di qiu gui dao shang dui ji de 50 duo wan jian ren zao sui pian jin xing gen zong. suo you zhei xie tai kong la ji dui jing guo de hang tian qi, bi ru shuo guo ji kong jian zhan yi ji hao zi shu shi yi mei yuan de wei xing gou cheng le ri yi yan zhong de peng zhuang wei xie." cong tong ji jiao du jiang, mei wu dao jiu nian jiu hui you yi ci zai nan xing de peng zhuang, yi ke reng wan hao wu sun de da xing tai kong la ji wang wang hui bei zhuang ji cheng shu yi qian ji de sui pian," de guo hang kong hang tian zhong xin zhuan men chu li tai kong la ji de zhuan jia man nu ai er mei ci Manuel Metz biao shi," zhei xie xin de sui pian ben shen ke neng hui chan sheng xin de peng zhuang, yin ci hui chan sheng ceng die xiao ying." er zhe zhong xian xiang zheng shi 2013 nian dian ying di xin yin li suo miao shu de qian zai zai nan xing xian xiang. a ge li di ren wei, shou xian ji zhong jing li qing chu zui da de tai kong sui pian shi you dao li de, yin wei ta men wang wang wei xie geng da. zheng ge xiang mu di xiang fa shi fa she yi xi lie de la ji qing li wei xing, rang ta men mei nian bu huo bing qing chu yi xie sui pian. ru guo zheng zai jin xing de qing chu tai kong la ji ce shi ren wu yuan man jie shu, a ge li di xi wang hang kong hang tian gong si yuan yi wei qing li tai kong la ji de ren wu ti gong zi jin." zhe shi gai nian di zheng ming," ta shuo." ru guo cheng gong le, wo men xi wang wo men de gong ye he zuo huo ban jiang qi tui jin dao shang ye ling yu." ci ci yan shi shi RemoveDebris wei xing dui tai kong sui pian shou ji she bei jin xing yi xi lie ce shi zhong de di er ci. RemoveDebris wei xing you da xue he hang kong hang tian gong si zu cheng de yi ge cai tuan jian zao, zhu yao you ou meng ti gong zi jin. qu nian 9 yue, zhe ke wei xing cheng gong di yong yi ge zhuang you tan huang de wang bu huo le yi kuai mo ni sui pian. jin nian 3 yue, zhe ke wei xing jiang zai yi kuai tai kong sui pian shang an zhuang yi ge ke chong qi de" tuo ye fan". ke xue jia men yu ji," tuo ye fan" jiang yu wei xing suo zai gao du de shao shu kong qi fen zi xiang hu zuo yong, cong er jian man sui pian de fei xing su du, shi qi zhui ru da qi ceng bing ran shao. ci wai, ren men hai ti chu le ge zhong qian zai zhuang zhi lai bu huo he xiao chu kong jian sui pian, bao kuo zi tui jin ji sheng he ji xie bi. a ge li di shuo, zhi suo yi xuan ze yu cha yu wang he tuo ye fan lai qing chu tai kong la ji sui pian, shi yin wei ta men geng wei jing ji. de ke sa si da xue ao si ting fen xiao University of Texas at Austin tai kong ke xue jia tai kong sui pian yan jiu zhuan jia mo li ba jia Moriba Jah shuo, zui hao you bu zhi yi zhong fang fa lai qing chu suo you dui ji de la ji." zhu dong qing chu tai kong sui pian xu yao xu duo bu tong de fang fa he ji shu," ta zai zhou er de yi feng dian zi you jian zhong shuo." wo ren wei, wo men xu yao yi tao suo wei de' gong ju bao', neng gou gen ju shi ji qing kuang ying yong ge zhong fang fa."

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